Quantum dots are tiny particles or nanocrystals of a semiconducting material with diameters in the range of 2-10 nanometers (10-50 atoms). They were first discovered in 1980.1 Quantum dots display unique electronic properties, intermediate between those of bulk semiconductors and discrete molecules, that are partly the result of the unusually high surface-to-volume ratios for these particles.2-4 The most apparent result of this is fluorescence, wherein the nanocrystals can produce distinctive colors determined by the size of the particles.

Due to their small size, the electrons in quantum dots are confined in a small space (quantum box), and when the radii of the semiconductor nanocrystal is smaller than the exciton Bohr radius (exciton Bohr radius is the average distance between the electron in the conduction band and the hole it leaves behind in the valence band), there is quantization of the energy levels according to Pauli’s exclusion principle (Figure 1).5,6 The discrete, quantized energy levels of quantum dots relate them more closely to atoms than bulk materials and have resulted in quantum dots being nicknamed 'artificial atoms'. Generally, as the size of the crystal decreases, the difference in energy between the highest valence band and the lowest conduction band increases. More energy is then needed to excite the dot, and concurrently, more energy is released when the crystal returns to its ground state, resulting in a color shift from red to blue in the emitted light. As a result of this phenomenon, quantum dots can emit any color of light from the same material simply by changing the dot size. Additionally, because of the high level of control possible over the size of the nanocrystals produced, quantum dots can be tuned during manufacturing to emit any color of light.7